PLE资源集(转载)

来源:百度文库 编辑:16楼社区 时间:2019/09/23 13:14:19
From LTCWiki(很好的关于PLE的介绍资源集)
OverviewWhat is a Personal Learning Environment?Why PLEs? Why Now?Elements of a Personal Learning EnvironmentCurrent BarriersPLE ImagesAdditional Resources
Overview
Recent developments in learning technologies are creating an array of options not present when learning management systems (LMS) gained prominence in academic institutions. These tools – blogs, wikis, podcasts, social bookmarking and others – create a significant shift in the educational experience. Personal Learning Environments (PLEs) refer to the aggregation of single-functionality tools which enable learners greater control over their own learning experience. Instead of centralized, instructor-controlled learning, PLEs are distributed, social and learner-centric.
What is a Personal Learning Environment?
Definitions for Personal Learning Environments (PLEs) differ. Some have suggested that the principles of PLEs can be presented in a software tool (seePlex, for example), while others suggest it to be more of a concept than a particular tool. The differing viewpoints of PLEs are reflective of infancy of the concept, and the practical applications of the read/write web itself.
It's the connections that make a PLE. Numerous other factors play a role: content creation tools, content storage, tools for communication, protocols/APIs, and identity management.
A few definitions:
l???????? "A Personal Learning Environment (PLE) is a collection of free, distributed, web-based tools, usually centred around a blog, linked together and aggregating content using RSS feeds and simple HTML scripts."http://seanfitz.wikispaces.com/creatingyourple
l???????? "a Personal Learning Environment is a facility for an individual to access, aggregate, configure and manipulate digital artefacts of their ongoing learning experiences."http://members.optusnet.com.au/rlubensky/2006/12/present-and-future-of-personal-learning.html
l???????? "Essentially, they are a collection of tools, brought together under the conceptual notion of openness, interoperability, and learner control."http://www.elearnspace.org/blog/archives/002884.html
l???????? PLEs:http://blog.simslearningconnections.com/?p=50 - "PLE are very personal both in the sense of being independent of the university or employer and in the sense of being hand-crafted — although a bit necessarily too hand-crafted today. Even with a more ideal integrative application, PLE will still be highly customized to the needs and preferences of the learner. Portions of even the software application PLE will be kept behind our personal firewall. Learning is deeply personal, AND social."
A few other random thoughts:
PLEs provide contextually appropriate toolsets by enabling individuals to adjust and select options based on their needs and circumstance - resulting in (ideally) a model where needs, not technology, drives the learning process.
PLEs provide multiple narratives and perspectives as a core function of the tool, reflecting the networked nature of society and knowledge today. While an LMS can provide a similar approach, they heavily favor the "one expert" voice through the layout of learning materials and resources. PLE, conceptually, at least, do not pre-weight any particular node of knowledge, dialogue, or information. The voice of an educator is still important, but not primary, as learners may be extending their overall learning through numerous voices.
PLEs enable individual learners to build their own learning network. This learning network plays an important role in learners being able to filter information deluge, connecting with others based on shared interest, and seek personal knowledge interests (instead of being exclusively defined by the instructor or course designers).
PLEs can include fairly basic tools (such as blogs) to more complex structures. A simple blog or podcast works well for instructors new to technology...and more experienced instructors may end up using a wide array of tools to achieve intended learning aims. A criticism I frequently encounter when discussing the many distributed tools often conceptualized as a PLE, is that the numerous different tools are overwhelming. The hidden assumption being that using an LMS like WebCT is easier because it's "one tool". In reality, the number of options with single-functionality tools (like blogs, podcasts, wikis, and so on) is that the learning curve for each tool is quite low. An educator may require extensive training to use WebCT...but can start implementing a blog as a means of augmenting existing courses without too much effort. PLEs scale based on educator interests.
"A PLE is characterized by the freeform use of a set of lightweight services and tools that belong to and are controlled by individual learners. Rather than integrating different services into a centralized system, the idea is to provide the learner with a myriad of services and hand over control to her to select and use the services the way she deems fit. A PLE driven approach does not only provide personal spaces, which belong to and are controlled by the user, but also requires a social context by offering means to connect with other personal spaces for effective knowledge sharing and collaborative knolwedge creation."http://mohamedaminechatti.blogspot.com/2007/01/personal-environments-loosely-joined.html
As this examples oforganizing PLEs indicates, each learner will create a different collage of tools reflecting their personal preferences and learning needs.
Ideally, a PLE requires content and conversation to flow between different platforms. The challenge of traditional Learning Management Systems (seeLearning of Management Systems? (.doc) stems from the inability for learners and educators alike to share resources with the ease of many PLE tools.
A degree of risk exists in trying to solidify the nature of PLEs too soon. At this stage, PLEs are about trying to name an emergent process. PLEs site at a crossroads of societal change (the shift to more informality and increased questioning of authority), new affordances of technology,
Why PLEs? Why Now?
The popularity of PLEs are driven by numerous factor:
l???????? Internet/Web
l???????? Connective Technology
l???????? Informalization
l???????? Complexification
SeeKnowing Knowledge for a more involved discussion of the changes influencing information, society, and education.
Elements of a Personal Learning Environment
PLEs can exist partly on a desktop and the web. During the last two years, many services have moved online, permitting increased collaboration and ease of sharing.
Production tools
Wikis (and advanced wiki-based tools likeCoventi Pages) -LTCs Wiki Resource
BlogsLTCs Blog Resource
Podcasts SeeLTCs Audio Resource
Video/YouTube See {http://ltc.umanitoba.ca/wiki/index.php?title=Video LTCs Video Resource]
Google Docs
Collaboration and sharing tools
Collaboration tools often possess production capabilities
Social Bookmarking SeeLTCs Social Bookmarking Resource
Wikis
Flickr - SeeLTCs Flickr/Image Resource
Communication
Skype
IM
Persistent Presence tools (such asTwitter andJaiku
Application Sharing
Second Life (inclusion of SecondLife as a component of PLEs is a function of how PLEs are defined. If openness and the ability for data to move between different tools is important, 2L fails...but if PLEs are defined more by the loose connections of numerous tools under the control of an individual, 2L could be considered a component).
For more information, seeLTCs WebConferencing resource
Storage tools
Amazon S3
Aggregating Content
Bloglines
Netvibes
Pageflakes
Google Reader
Aggregating People
Explode
Social networking services
Ning
People Aggregator
Aggregating Software
Mashups
Teqlo
Pipes
Dapper
Identity Management
OpenID
APIs and Protocols Open APIs and open protocols are key requirements for PLEs to grow as a concept. Whereas most software programs (such as LMS) often lock customers into a platform, the use of open standards creates a hopeful base for long-term interoperability. Instead of content being confined to a space owned byt he institution, the learning can be in a platform under the control of the learner (thereby ensuring long term access to her/his own learning materials)
Suites of tools
Sites likeMyspace,Facebook andEduSpaces.net can serve as PLEs - the ability to dialogue, manage ones own identity, and share resources, combined with huge penetration in many campuses, speak of their potential as a learning tool. EduSpaces.net is based on an open source tool for social networking, that can be used also as PLE and Eportfolio tool:Elgg.
Devices are generally not considered to be a part of a PLE (the emphasis on PLEs "as a concept" reflect this). The growth of mobile phones and "portable computing" may change this emphasis.
Current Barriers
Are PLEs ready for wide spread adoption? During arecent PLE symposium at University of Manitoba, Terry Anderson offered reservations (see alsoAre PLEs ready for Primetime?. Many challenges exist:
l???????? Numerous tools can be overwhelming
l???????? Skill levels/digital literacy competency (technical literacy - i.e. how to use different functions of a computer and many "web 2.0" tools...as well as information literacy - how to evaluate information needs and determine quality of information being explored)
l???????? Pedagogical viewpoints - different viewpoints of what it means to teach, to learn, and views of the role of education all impact potential approaches
l???????? Access to technology and software
How do we achieve clear outcomes through decentralized means? How do we reconcile the structured nature of formal education with the informal attributes of networked learning? While PLEs and eportfolios offer an opportunity to blend informal and formal learning, the gulf between the two is great.
The tools and processes which best connect with the manner in which people communicate and live their digital lives are conceivably those most likely to succeed. PLEs reflect the networked nature of society and knowledge.
Unfortunately, large scale adoption of PLEs in formal academic environments will be stifled until the process of implementation can be duplicated (to ensure quality) and control points (in to form of metrics) exist for funding bodies and other stakeholders (like parents). Blogs, wikis, and podcasts are experiencing higher levels of adoption, but as individual tools, they hardly qualify as a PLE. Individual teachers and educators may adopt these read/write tools in classrooms, fully online courses require greater connection between elements, hence the continued popularity of WebCT/Moodle/Blackboard.
LMS' are generally not used at full capacity - most educators teaching face-to-face courses use specific feature - discussion forums or quizzing, for example. In informal research, the most common use appears to be the grade book. PLEs must be able to provide grading functionality that can tie in to existing enterprise systems.
Another challenge facing PLEs is the lack of content presentation tools. Over the last year, this inadequacy has been somewhat addressed through content presentation likeSlideshare. Google expects to have a content presentation tool available by summer 2007.
PLE Images
David DelgadoMohamed Amine ChattiJeremy HiebertJames FarmerDavid Tosh
Derek WenmothScott Wilson see article:http://blog.core-ed.net/derek/2006/10/ples_and_mles.html
Stephen Downes
Additional Resources
Online Seminar Discussion facilitated by Derek Wenmoth and Derek Chirnside June 4-24, 2007
Shared Learning Environment
LMS vs. PLE
PLE Links
History of PLEs:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_personal_learning_environments
Mark van Harmelen
Present and Future PLEs
PLEs in Context
Downes -Future of Online Learning and Personal Learning Environments
U of Manitoba PLE Symposium
U of Manitoba -Innovative Use of Technology by Department
PLE tags
Why corporations would use PLE
Why PLEs
James Farmer:http://incsub.org/blog/2006/the-inevitable-personal-learning-environment-post
PLE Blog:http://www.cetis.ac.uk/members/ple/ (Scott Wilson)
McLuhan and PLEs?http://terrya.edublogs.org/2007/04/10/mcluhan%e2%80%99s-laws-of-media-and-the-ple/
ELGG - Personal Learning Landscape:http://tesl-ej.org/ej34/m1.html
Retrieved from "http://ltc.umanitoba.ca/wiki/index.php?title=Ple"
Category:Learning Technologies